The outbreak of World War I in brought an end to the monetary union. Danish Dominance The midth-century reign of Harald Bluetooth as king of a newly unified, powerful and Christianized Denmark marked the beginning of a second Viking age. The Norwegian parliament offered the vacant throne to Prince Carl of Denmark, who accepted after another plebiscite had confirmed the monarchy.
After the war, Denmark was forced to cede Heligoland to Britain. Part of the reason for the large exodus was the increasing population caused by falling death rates, which increased unemployment.
The Swedish rise to power began under the rule of Charles IX. Negotiations in Karlstad led to agreement with Sweden on 23 September and mutual demobilization. Europe and Beyond Meanwhile, Viking armies remained active on the European continent throughout the ninth century, brutally sacking Nantes on the French coast in and attacking towns as far inland as Paris, Limoges, Orleans, Tours and Nimes.
They wove a new national history, which emphasised or invented many links between the Scottish and Pictish dynasties. Lindisfarne was abandoned, and the monks trailed around northern England with their greatest possession, the relics of St Cuthbert, until they found a home in Durham in AD.
Both these rulers were in many ways even more important in the history of England than Alfred himself. From —, they drove the Catholic forces back and regained much of the occupied Protestant lands. Norway declared its independence, adopted a liberal constitution, and elected Prince Christian Frederik as king.
Danes were notable for their devoted efforts to protect Danish Jews. Battles were short and decisively won by the Swedes. Sweden began consolidating its empire. Crowned king of England on Christmas Day inWilliam managed to retain the crown against further Danish challenges.
And in there were separate invasions by the king of Norway, Harald Hardrada, and duke of Normandy, William, the latter the descendant of Scandinavian settlers in northern France.
The bombardment of Copenhagen led to an alliance with France and outright war with Britain, whose navy blockaded Denmark-Norway and severely impeded communication between the two kingdoms and caused a famine in Norway.
Raids were on a large scale, frequently organised by royal leaders, and their object was extortion. The Vikings had conquered almost the whole of England. Over the next few decades, many monasteries in the north were destroyed, and with them any records they might have kept of the raids.
The war did have a significant impact on the economy of the area, primarily as a result of the British blockade of Germany. It also helped that the French regent Cardinal Richelieu was willing to pay for a Danish incursion into Germany. Industrialization[ edit ] Industrialization began in the mid 19th century in Scandinavia.
Denmark remained primarily agricultural until well into the 20th century, but agricultural processes were modernized and processing of dairy and meats became more important than the export of raw agricultural products.
According to later Icelandic histories, some of the early Viking settlers in Greenland supposedly led by the Norwegian Viking hero Leif Erikssonson of Erik the Red may have become the first Europeans to discover and explore North America. During the Ingrian War Sweden expanded its territories eastward.
Industrialization of Sweden experienced a boom during the First World War. The monetary union was one of the few tangible results of the Scandinavian political movement of the 19th century. Second World War[ edit ] Further information: Nevertheless, there was a hostile relationship, with an occupation force of almost one German for every ten Norwegians.
Christian IV invaded at the head of a mercenary army of 20, men, but the Danish forces were severely beaten, and Christian IV had to sign an ignominious defeat, the first in a series of military setbacks to weaken his kingdom.
All of them were perhaps in need of protection from aggression by the Vikings of Dublin. But William won, and the last English royal dynasty perished. Viking armies mostly Danish conquered East Anglia and Northumberland and dismantled Mercia, while in King Alfred the Great of Wessex became the only king to decisively defeat a Danish army in England.
For all these reasons, Denmark was able to retain their parliament, king, and much of their normal domestic function. The vast majority of emigrants left from the countryside in search of better farming and economic opportunities. In Iceland, the Vikings left an extensive body of literature, the Icelandic sagas, in which they celebrated the greatest victories of their glorious past.
They also desired Norway for its ice-free ports. These repressive measures ensured that the cooperation was small. Norway however, refused to give in and fought valiantly and with the full strength of her limited and badly prepared forces.The Viking culture was Scandinavian, with society divided into three classes, the Jarls (aristocracy), Karls (lower class), and Thralls (slaves).
Upward mobility was possible for Karls but not Thralls. Slavery was widely practiced throughout Scandinavia and is considered one of the prime motivators for the Viking raids on other lands. Ancient Scandinavia: An Archaeological History from the First Humans to the Vikings - Kindle edition by T.
Douglas Price. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Ancient Scandinavia: An Archaeological History from the First Humans to the /5(6).
Scandinavia, a land mass comprising the modern countries of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, was the last part of Europe to be inhabited by humans. Not until the end of the last Ice Age when the melting of huge ice sheets left behind a fresh, barren land surface, about 13, BC, did the first humans arrive and settle in the region.
Mar 29, · He led the Viking army to a conquest of Mercia in AD, organised a parcelling out of land among the Vikings in Northumbria in AD, and in AD moved south and forced most of the population of Wessex to submit.
The Vikings had conquered almost the whole of England. A quick overview of the history of the Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Iceland, summarized for travelers visiting Scandinavia. Ancient Origins articles related to Scandinavia in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ancient places and myths and legends.Download