A fine-grained phenomenology of how we carry out various kinds of moral judgment, and the errors or infelicities to which we are prone in this process, will be far more helpful. Of course, that eventually means that we correct the modes of approval of people around us for bias and misinformation; we seek the judgment of an impartial spectator within rather than partial spectators without.
He makes clear that mutual sympathy of negative emotions is a necessary condition for friendship, whereas mutual sympathy of positive emotions is desirable but not required.
Any decent human life, he believes, requires certain virtues, and depends on a respect and love of individuals for the people around them. Becoming a good human being is ultimately a task that each individual must take up for him or herself.
Of the influence of Custom and Fashion upon the Sentiments of Approbation and Disapprobation[ edit ] Smith argues that two principles, custom and fashion, pervasively influence judgment.
But once civil government has been established, people may legitimately be forced to carry out at least the greatest and most obvious duties of beneficence. Systematic Philosopher and Public Thinker, Oxford: Small griefs are likely, and appropriately, turned into joke and mockery by the sufferer, as the sufferer knows how complaining about small grievances to the impartial spectator will evoke ridicule in the heart of the spectator, and thus the sufferer sympathizes with this, mocking himself to some degree.
As long as neighbors know each other reasonably well, their approval and disapproval will normally take into account the particular circumstances, the peculiar history and psychology, of the individuals they judge—their judgments will reflect, say, the difference in gratitude due to a loudly self-pitying parent as opposed to a truly long-suffering one.
It operated through a logic of mirroring, in which a spectator imaginatively reconstructed the experience of the person he watches: One example is "eating An analysis of adam smiths theory of moral sentiments when hungry, as the impartial spectator can sympathize a little bit if there is a vivid description and good cause for this hunger, but not to a great extent as hunger itself cannot be induced from mere description.
When individuals view others as happy or sad, he writes, they experience those emotions as well. Thus do moral norms and ideals, and the judgments by which we guide ourselves towards those norms and ideals, arise out of the process by which we try to achieve mutual sympathy.
However, people become intolerable to each other when they have no feeling or sympathy for the misfortunes or resentment of the other: First, it uses sentiments rather than reason as the basis of its judgments.
Thus, sympathy is never enough, as the "sole consolation" for the sufferer is "to see the emotions of their hearts, in every respect, beat time to his own, in the violent and disagreeable passions" p. He argues that each "class" of things has a "peculiar conformation which is approved of" and that the beauty of each member of a class is determined by the extent to which it has the most "usual" manifestation of that "conformation": Smith himself does not clearly spell out the responses proposed here to the philosophical problems that his theory raises.
The person observing and sympathizing with the emotionally aroused "person principally concerned" These two people have two different sets of virtues. Smith concludes that the "perfection" of human nature is this mutual sympathy, or "love our neighbor as we love ourself" by "feeling much for others and little for ourself" and to indulge in "benevolent affections" p.
Schliesser, Eric,Adam Smith: The leisured classes in every country tend to be less strict about sexual mores than the working classes WN The idea of a history of morals opens up here, and Smith—via his student John Millar, who attended the lectures on jurisprudence—was an important source of later sociological and anthropological accounts of normative change.
Furthermore, we are generally insensitive to the real situation of the other person; we are instead sensitive to how we would feel ourselves if we were in the situation of the other person.
Of the passions which take their origins from a particular turn or habit of the imagination[ edit ] Passions which "take their origins from a particular turn or habit of the imagination" are "little sympathized with". Of the manner in which we judge of the propriety or impropriety of the affections of other men by their concord or dissonance with our own Chapter 4: That is impossible, for Smith.
His conception of morality is quite Aristotelian, but for him the state can do little to help people achieve virtuous character. Even if concern for social approval is not the ideal motivation for moral action, therefore, it is at least some sign of good character, and a step along the way to the motivations of the fully virtuous person.
David Hume, with his Treatise of Human Nature, built on this theory and felt that utility the inherent benefits in something, or its ability to prevent something negative is what makes people happy.
Of the passions which take their origins from a particular turn or habit of the imagination Chapter 3: The pressure of social sanctions is more like, and more likely to draw one towards, the pressure of conscience.
That is, intrapersonal emotions trigger at least some sympathy without the need for context whereas interpersonal emotions are dependent on context.
Smith also cites a few examples where our judgment is not in line with our emotions and sympathy, as when we judge the sorrow of a stranger who has lost her mother as being justified even though we know nothing about the stranger and do not sympathize ourselves. So social approval is more likely than legal approval to pick out the right sort of actions to mark for moral worth.Adam Smith developed a comprehensive and unusual version of moral sentimentalism in his Theory of Moral Sentiments (, TMS).
The Theory of Moral Sentiments Adam Smith Sixth Edition () p xΜεταLibri q y. The Theory of Moral Sentiments is one of two major works that Adam Smith wrote, and to try and understand the man who wrote down and formalised many of the key concepts of a capitalist society, and anyone wanting to understand his more famous book, The Wealth of Nations, should really delve in to this book/5.
Adam Smith was a professor of moral philosophy in the University of Glasgow. He is perhaps better known for his work in economic theory, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (commonly known as The Wealth of Nations ; ), than for The Theory of Moral Sentiments, his other major work.
The Theory of Moral Sentiments study guide contains a biography of Adam Smith, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a. Adam Smith’s concept of sympathy. In “The Theory of Moral Sentiments” (), Adam Smith defines sympathy as the effect that is produced when we imagine that another person’s circumstances are our own circumstances, and find their reaction to the circumstances to be reasonable.Download